Apex Investigation and Intelligence Institutions in India

National security is looked by various institutions. Some of these institutions have been established under different statutes and others are autonomous institutions. This post discusses the institutions working under the Ministry of Home Affairs and Ministry of Finance. These institutions have been entrusted with a variety of roles such as investigation in different areas as follows –

A. Institutions under Union Ministry of Home Affairs –

Institution Principal Legislation Year of Establishment Role/ Functions
Central Bureau of Investigation


 Delhi Special Police Establishment Act,1946 1963 To investigate grievous cases and provide leadership and direction in fighting corruption to the Police forces across the country
 Research and Analysis Wing 1968 To act as primary foreign intelligence agency of India
Bureau of Police Research & Development (BPR&D) 1970 To ensure modernization of police force by promoting a speedy and systematic study of the police problems, & applying science and technology in the methods and techniques used by police
Narcotics Control Bureau 1986 To co-ordinate of actions by various offices, State Governments and other authorities under the N.D.P.S. Act, Customs Act, Drugs and Cosmetics Act and any other law for the time being in force in connection with the enforcement provisions of the NDPS Act, 1985
Defence Intelligence Agency 2002 To act as a nodal agency for all defence related intelligence
National Investigation Agency  National Investigation Agency ,2008 2008 To  investigate and prosecute offences affecting the sovereignty, security and integrity of India, security of State, friendly relations with foreign States and offences under Acts

 B. Institutions under the Union of Ministry of Finance –

This part discusses the agencies working under the Ministry of Finance

Investigating Agencies which function under the Department of Revenue in Union Ministry of Finance:-

Institution Principal Legislation Year of Establishment Role/ Functions
Central Board of Direct Taxes Central Board of Revenue Act, 1963 1963  To administer  direct tax laws through the Income Tax Department and give essential inputs for policy and planning of direct taxes in India
Central Board of Excise and Customs (CBEC) Central Board of Revenue Act, 1963 1963 To formulate policy concerning levy and collection of Customs & Central Excise duties and Service Tax, prevention of smuggling and administration of matters relating to Customs, Central Excise, Service Tax and Narcotics to the extent under CBEC’s purview.
Directorate of Revenue Intelligence

( successor to Central Revenue Intelligence Bureau)

1957 To function as the chief anti-smuggling intelligence, investigations and operations agency.
Directorate General of Goods and Services Tax Intelligence (DGGI), (earlier known as Directorate General of Central Excise Intelligence) 1979 To detect cases of evasion of duties of newly introduced Goods and Services Tax, Central Excise and Service Tax
 Central Economic Intelligence Bureau   1985 To act as a nodal agency for economic intelligence mandated to ensure effective interaction and coordination among all the concerned agencies in the area of economic offences

Apart from the institutions discussed above, some more agaencies also work in India under the Government.

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Bhumika Sharma

She is currently a Research Scholar, (PhD) at Himachal Pradesh University, Shimla. She finds peace in research and writing on a variety of social issues. She believes in the power of education and awareness to deal with various problems.

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